le 14 Août 2013
Madame la Présidente,
S’adresser au Conseil de sécurité est un privilege, le faire en qualité de Représentant spécial du Secrétaire général est un honneur qui m’échoit pour la première fois. Je saisis cette occasion pour exprimer mon profond respect au Conseil.
Madame la Présidente,
Je me réjouis de vous présenter le rapport du Secrétaire général sur la situation en République centrafricaine (RCA) et sur les activités du Bureau intégré des Nations Unies pour la consolidation de la paix dans ce paix en présence de la Secrétaire générale adjointe Valerie Amos et du Sous Secrétaire général Ivan Šimonović qui ont tous deux visiter la RCA en juillet et vous exposeront la situation humanitaire et celle des droits de l’homme.
Since the publication of the report, the overall situation in the CAR has remained highly volatile and unpredictable, although there has been some progress on the political front.
Following the promulgation of the Transitional Charter on 18 July and in accordance with its Article 25, the Government of National Unity appointed on 13 June was reshuffled on 2 August.
While its composition remains almost the same, Mr. Michel Djotodia is no longer Minister of
Defense and a new junior minister in charge of Defence, Restructuring of the Army, Former Combatants and Victims of War was appointed instead. The former portfolio of Water and Forests, held by former Senior Minister Moussa Dhaffane, has been filled. The representation of women remains low, with only three women out of thirty-four members of cabinet, although they hold key ministries such as Foreign Affairs and Rural Development, the latter being State Minister.
Similarly, the National Transitional Council (NTC), which was expanded from 105 to 135 members in July, appointed a new bureau on 8 August. While the re-election was requested by ECCAS to ensure greater diversity and representation, the bureau remained almost intact with only one of the rapporteurs loosing his seat. Meanwhile, the members of the Transitional
Constitutional Court will be sworn in on 16 August. They will administer the oath of office to Mr. Djotodia as the Head of State of the Transition on 18 August, and according to the Transitional Charter, this ceremony will officially launch the transition that should last from 18 to 24 months.
Thus, most of the transitional institutions and mechanisms have been established, in accordance with the decisions made by the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS).
This progress was made possible thanks to the direct involvement of ECCAS leaders and the Mediator they appointed for the CAR, President Denis Sassou Nguesso of the Republic of Congo.
However, tensions persist between Mr. Djotodia, Prime Minister Tiangaye and the President of the NTC over the management of the transition process. Their relations are characterized by mutual suspicion and mistrust. Therefore, the political gains made remain fragile, while the roadmap for elections remains to be established.
While there is still a total absence of rule of law nationwide, the security situation has slightly improved in Bangui, following the arrest of General Mohamed Moussa Dhaffane, a former prominent military leader of one of Séléka’s factions and Senior Minister for Water and Forests Nine sites of cantonment/regroupment for Séléka have been established in five localities and four sites of regroupment/cantonment for ex-FACA elements were also established. Joint patrols by Séléka and MICOPAX (the sub-regional peacekeeping force) have resumed in the capital.
However, lootings of people’s properties, plundering, kidnapping, torturing, killings still continue. For example, a so-called “Ramadan tax” was paid by local people in the provinces. On 9 August, armed men suspected of being Séléka elements robbed a local supermarket in broad day light, and kidnapped the owners.
In addition, human rights violations have become widespread, further compounding by the breakdown of law and order, particularly in the provinces, where Séléka elements continue to prey on the civilian population. We must ensure that there is no impunity for perpetrators of gross human rights violations. Meanwhile, the humanitarian situation has reached unprecedented levels.
4.6 million people are affected by the dire humanitarian crisis, which has moved from a protracted humanitarian crisis towards a complex emergency. ASG Simonovic and USG Amos will present you with a detailed picture of the grave human rights and humanitarian situations, respectively.
As there is no proper chain of command, the country runs the risk of descending into anarchy and chaos. Some police officers are reporting to work, but are not equipped to work safely and effectively. Furthermore, they do not trust and they fear their Séléka counterparts.
The reorganization of the Security and Defence Forces is yet to be supported by a clear, credible and structured plan. In that regard, the police and the gendarmerie were instructed to absorb 500 Séléka elements each, including suspected foreign elements, without prior screening to determine their suitability. The intended integration of an additional thousand Séléka elements into the newly established Armée de la République centrafricaine (ARC) is not based on any set of objective criteria either.
The integration process in the Police faces the challenge of the lack of proper facilities, as the
Training School of the National Police is still occupied by a MICOPAX contingent. Many FACA elements have reported for duty in four different sites in Bangui, although some have also sought refuge in neighbouring countries (Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo and Cameroon) with their weapons. Diplomatic efforts are underway for their voluntary repatriation. Discussions were ongoing between the Séléka leadership and the rebel group of “Force Démocratique du Peuple Centrafricain” (FDPC) led by Abdoulaye Miskine.
Meanwhile, the Lord’s Resistance Army has continued to thrive in the turmoil caused by the political events of March 2013. Since May 2013, BINUCA has been receiving reports on the presence of LRA elements in the prefecture of Haute Kotto.
On 19 July, the African Union Peace and Security Council (AUPSC) authorized the deployment, for an initial period of six months, of the African-led peace support operation (AFISM-CAR), effective 1 August 2013. The new mission will have a total strength of 3,652 civilian and military personnel, mainly composed of the contingents currently serving in MICOPAX. AFISM-CAR is mandated to: (i) protect civilians and restore security and public order; (ii) restore state authority;
(iii) reform and restructure the defense and security sector; and (iv) create the conditions conducive for the provision of humanitarian assistance to population in need. AFISM-CAR has a robust mandate and will have an important role in stabilizing the security situation. The African Union is dispatching a Technical Assessment Mission (TAM) to Bangui from 17 August to refine the concept of operations for AFISM-CAR and develop a realistic logistic support plan for the mission. The United Nations will participate in the TAM in an advisory capacity. In parallel, the AU is also deploying a joint transition planning team to Libreville to develop, jointly with ECCAS, the modalities for the transition from MICOPAX II to AFISM-CAR.
We welcome the establishment of the African Union mission and encourage the Security Council to lend its full support to the force. We hope that the forthcoming deployment of the impartial force AFISM-CAR will provide the leverage needed to end the anarchy and the chaos in Bangui and in the provinces.
On the political front Mr. Djotodia, the Prime Minister and the President of the NTC must work together to urgently bridge their differences, which, if unaddressed, may jeopardize the progress made thus far and seriously aggravate the crisis in the country. Moving forward, there will be a need to agree on roadmap and a chronogram to end the transition period and hold elections. There will also be a need to tackle the question of impunity and ensure proper assistance to populations in need.
Madame la Présidente,
La RCA fait face à d’énormes défis, mais j’ai la conviction qu’avec le soutien permanent et
agissant de la communauté internationale, associé à la volonté politique des acteurs, nous pouvons ensemble surmonter ces difficultés.
Lors de mes entretiens avec les acteurs nationaux comme avec les leaders de la sous-région, je n’ai pas manqué une seule fois d’appeler leur attention sur l’impérieuse nécessité de résoudre le problème de la sécurité qui demeure de loin la plus urgente des priorités.
Sans doute beaucoup reste à faire par ailleurs, mais le règlement des problèmes de sécurité et d’état de droit auront un impact positif et immédiat sur les défis politiques, humanitaires et des droits de l’homme auxquels nous sommes confrontés.
Il est temps d’agir.
Je vous remercie de votre attention.